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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

The comparison of classic individuation theories with synchronized individuation

 Items Primary SI by Margaret Mahler (1963) Secondary SI by Peter Blos (1967) Tertiary SI by Calvin Colarusso (1990) Synchronized SI from this article
SI subjectInfantAdolescentAdultAdolescent-parents
SI fromMother (caretaker)ParentsChildren, spouse, parentsEach other
PeriodInfancyAdolescenceYoung and middle adulthoodAdolescence-middle adulthood
Developmental tasksPsychological birth from symbiosis, establishment of object constancyReorganization of psychic structure, independence from parents, identity achievementMaking family, experiencing parenthood, accepting the aging, transforming the relationshipTolerating ambivalent tension in relation, mutual recognition and respect
ProcessDifferentiation, practicing, rapprochement, object constancyDialectic process between regressive and progressive positionsOngoing process of separation from the offspring, spouse, and parentsSynchronized experience of ambivalence, selective identification, achieving dual individuation

SI: separation-individuation

Psychoanal 2016;27:35-41 https://doi.org/10.18529/psychoanal.2016.27.2.35
© 2016 Korean Association of Psychoanalysis